Inversión versus coste del ciclo de vida de los edificios. Proyecciones energético-económicas

Pablo Aparicio, José Guadix, Luis Onieva

Resumen


La inversión en la construcción es un factor limitante cuando se desea mejorar la eficiencia energética, debido a que los constructores prestan mayor atención a la inversión que al coste del ciclo de vida durante la vida útil del edificio. Este artículo presenta una metodología desarrollada que permite mejorar la calificación energética de edificios y su coste del ciclo de vida, en la mayoría de los escenarios económicos, las soluciones reducen la inversión, si se escogen los materiales constructivos óptimos.

Palabras clave: inversión, coste del ciclo de vida, construcción, eficiencia energética, calificación energética.


Investment versus life cycle cost of buildings. Energy-economic projections

Abstract: Investment in construction is limiting by some factors when it is desired improve energy efficiency, because the builders pay more attention to investment, which the life cycle cost over the lifetime of the building. This paper presents a developed methodology to improve the energy rating of buildings and life cycle cost, in the majority of economic scenarios; the solutions reduce investment, if the optimal construction materials are chosen. The aim of this study focuses on optimizing the life cycle cost of a building with the lowest consumption of energy demand, with the aim of improving environmental quality and energy. A methodology for optimizing the building envelope or skin of a building and the active elements that compose is set, to study the power consumption and the corresponding saving is established, considering the environmental impact and the cost of it. The application of a heuristic Tabu expedites time to resolution of the problem. However, the life cycle cost study is necessary to develop projections possible about the economic future of a building. Homeowners should understand the different economic situations in order to protect their investment. Moreover, investment is often a limiting factor in the decisions of construction. It tends to minimize the investment, within the law when it comes to achieve an energy rating and energy efficiency index, therefore you must know the effect of the investment when optimizing a building. In the future pricing of carbon emissions may provide an incentive for the deployment of efficient and low-carbon technologies across Europe. Those responsible of strategic investments in buildings often make decisions more or less intuitively, generally based on experience. The study of a building for different economic projections, we propose and consider different climatic zones. The building of residential character is described in detail. The application of the methodology presented in this paper can offer the user the study of buildings to various economic situations. The paper presents 956 case studies of this building. By studying Spanish 12 climatic zones, different economic scenarios are presented. The results show that the application of the methodology allows a reduction of CO2 emissions, reduced demand for heating, and the investment is reduced in a considerable number of life cycle cost cases. The final decision is applied by the responsible of making the decision, although the data obtained by applying this methodology are used to make that decision. The methodology provides a competitive advantage when the building is  presented. Given the uncertainties in the market, it should not make overly optimistic assessment, although the system helps decision making, the experience will be key to decide the best economic scenario.

Keywords: investment, life cycle cost, construction, energy efficiency, energy rating.

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